What Is Paternity Testing And How Is It Done-antik

Legal A paternity test is conducted to prove paternity, that is, whether a man is the biological father of another individual. This may be relevant in view of rights and duties of the father. Similarly, a maternity test can be carried out. This is less .mon, because at least during childbirth, except in the case of a pregnancy involving embryo transfer or egg donation, it is obvious who the mother is. This by DNA analysis of the three individuals, although older methods have included ABO blood group typing, analysis of various other proteins and enzymes, or using HLA antigens. For the most part however, DNA has all but taken over all the other forms of testing. The DNA of an individual is almost exactly the same in each and every somatic cell. Sexual reproduction brings the DNA of both parents together randomly to create a unique .bination of genetic material in a new cell, so the genetic material of an individual is derived from the genetic material of their parents. This genetic material is known as the nuclear genome of the individual, because it is found in the nucleus. .paring the DNA sequence of an individual to that of another individual can show if one of them was derived from the other or not. Specific sequences are usually looked at to see if they were copied verbatim from one of the individuals genome to the other. If that was the case, then this proves that the genetic material of one individual was derived from that of the other (i.e.: one is the parent of the other). Besides the nuclear DNA in the nucleus, the mitochondria in the cells also have their own genetic material termed the mitochondrial genome. Mitochondrial DNA .es only from the mother, without any shuffling. Proving a relationship based on .parison of the mitochondrial genome is much easier than that based on the nuclear genome. However, testing the mitochondrial genome can only prove if two individuals are related by .mon descent through maternal lines only from a .mon ancestor and is thus of limited value (for instance, it could not be used to test for paternity). Obtaining news that a child either is or isn’t one’s own is something that a parent or erstwhile parent can undertake at their own expense, without necessarily informing anyone either about the test or its result. However this situation will change when the Human Tissue Act .es into force in the UK in April 2006. Section 45 states that it will be an offence to possess any bodily material intending that any human DNA in the material be analysed without qualifying consent Tests can also be ordered by courts when proof of paternity is required. Non-paternity rates ! Meta-analysis of a wide variety of genetic studies appears to show that the rates of non-paternity in the general population are on the order of 4% [1] to over 30%, depending on the social group involved. Many find these rates surprisingly high. How is DNA Used in Paternity Testing? Certain regions of human DNA show variations between people. At each of these regions a person possesses two genetic types (known as alleles), one inherited from each parent. By looking at a number of these variable regions in a person a DNA profile is produced. By .paring the DNA profiles of the mother and child it is possible to determine which half of the child’s DNA was inherited from its mother (maternal alleles). The other half must therefore have been inherited from the child’s biological father (paternal alleles). The alleged father’s profile is then examined to determine whether he has the DNA types in his profile that match the paternal alleles in the child. If the man’s DNA types do not match the child’s, he is excluded as the biological father. If the DNA types match, then he is not excluded as the father. About the Author: 相关的主题文章: