Dean of the University of Peking University Examination Research Institute four famous books or unsu-dingxiangwuyuetian

The dean of the University of Peking University Examination Research Institute: four famous books or not suitable for children to read [Abstract] everyone should read the classics. But in different ages, the meaning of the classic is certainly different. From the perspective of parents and educators, Qin Chunhua asked this question: we believe that the four great masterpieces are classics, but is this classic really suitable for children? Visual Chinese Editor: everyone should read classics. But in different ages, the meaning of the classic is certainly different. From the perspective of parents and educators, Qin Chunhua asked this question: we believe that the four great masterpieces are classics, but is this classic really suitable for children? Do you think four famous books are suitable for children to read? If it is not suitable, do you think it is possible to adapt four famous books from the perspective of the child? What do you think is a classic for children to read? We pulled out a "education round table" – jiaoyuyuanzhuo@sina, waiting for you to speak. The summer vacation brings my daughter to travel. On the way, my daughter was pestering me to tell the story. The stock in the stomach has been taken out of her early, and must not have begun to speak to the Three Kingdoms. To pick out and find that there are few stories in the three kingdoms that can suit the young girls. To search a brains "Jiang Gan trapped", daughter’s ears. And she fell asleep after my wife told me very seriously: "after you don’t tell the story by Jiang gan. The plot is too complicated; and the story of the kid who is deceived to go is not good. " A word awakens the man in a dream. Just think about it. Is it a fraud? For 6 year old children, they should not be exposed to the content too early. After the wife finished speaking, my occupational disease had occurred. Ever since I’m obsessed with education, I can’t help thinking about education. "If Jiang Gan was" not suitable for children to listen to, so in the other story? To think deeply, bookstores in all kinds of versions of "four great masterpieces" are in great numbers. Parents move home to read their children in a pile, so that they can edify children’s traditional Chinese culture. But is the "four famous books" really suitable for children to read? Four famous books are not suitable for children to read first "the Water Margin" and "the romance of the Three Kingdoms". The two books in the China is especially known to every family, "Three Kingdoms", even the illiterate old lady knows "sworn brothers" "Sangumaolu" and other stories. When I was young, every day at noon hurriedly ran home, the first thing is to turn on the radio to listen to Yuan Kuocheng our storytelling "Three Kingdoms". However, "do not look at the water margin, the old do not read the Three Kingdoms", this old saying has long been in the folk. The water margin is full of luocaoweikou, Zhanshanweiwang raid homes and plunder houses. The young man full of sap, the mind will not be a suit; yet, with three schemes and intrigues, Machiavellian scheming, intrigues. "The old three is to read the thief", sophisticated old people after reading more and more sophisticated, old, crafty person. Such values and spiritual connotation, for adults have to guard against, let alone cannot distinguish right from wrong, vulnerable children! As a matter of fact, "journey to the west" should be the most suitable for children to read. Tang Seng, Sun Wukong, pig eight – ring, sand and monk, and all kinds of immortal demons are vivid, and the plot twists and turns, the most likely to arouse the interest of the children’s reading. However, this book is a fundamental Buddhism and life, the implied meaning is far-reaching broad, far from children can understand. The book can be seen everywhere in the "practice" and "Bodhi" "soul" and "Zen" and other words, implies a strong color of Buddhism, but most are not suitable for children to read. Finally, the "dream of Red Mansions". It is known as the peak of Chinese classical literature and enjoys a very high position in the history of world literature. The thought is profound, the text of the fine, high value of art, almost second to none. From the military and political leaders and scholars to master, small tradesmen and porters are obsessed with wild female. However, from an educational point of view, this book is not necessarily suitable for children to read, especially adolescent adolescents. First of all, although there are one thousand interpretations of the "dream of Red Mansions" by one thousand people, the theme of "color" "empty" "fantasy" and "extinguishing" is recognized by the world. For children, these ideas are either not understood, or understanding will affect their expectations of future life. Education should ignite the hopes of the children and encourage them to pursue a better life in the future, not to remind them how cruel the reality is. Secondly, according to Cao Xueqin’s original intention, the society and family described in the book step by step from prosperity to collapse. Finally, "the white land is really clean." This is so sad, sad to the extreme cold to the bone marrow, it reveals the worldly life, but not necessarily have to cultivate children’s optimistic outlook on life; finally, the book about the description of the paragraph should not let the children early exposure. I am certainly not pedantic distinction, physical health class has been opened in the school. However, the scientific understanding of the structure of the human body and there is nothing wrong, but it is the literature that Yuyuehuanxiu, like real and false description of the most easy to produce temptation for young men and women, "the key reason why the book Huangshu" cause infinite harm to people is to this point. In fact, from the "Golden Lotus" "stones" in the original copying occasion is indeed classified as "erotica" and banned, and Confucius had "little blood, because of uncertain" and "color" as the first Junzisanjie. In the child’s sex education, we can’t go from one extreme to another. Enlightened is not equal to laissez faire, and guidance should be paid more attention to methods and ways. Today, teenagers’ ignorance of sex, irresponsibility and rampant rape on campus are a major problem in the world, including the top universities in the world, including Harvard and Standford. Although many circles of society and many scholars have done a lot of research and discussion, there is no effective countermeasures to deal with it. The above analysis is the content. As far as the text is concerned, I don’t think it must be suitable for children, especially children – reading. The four masterpiece "Three Kingdoms" half literary and half vernacular, is more nearly completely classical, and now the vernacular is still a considerable distance, it is very difficult to read children. Even if reading is down without reading the story, just read hastily and without thinking. As for the novel structure and layout of the grand exquisite, vivid character of language, the wonderful and meaningful, these aesthetic value more than younger children can understand and comprehend. The literary classics suitable for children to read are also limited in fact, and the so-called "four famous books" have not been spread for long. "The Water Margin" and "the dream of the Red Mansions" have been greatly influenced, on the one hand, and the "new cultural movement" in the early twentieth Century. Hu Shi praised the new cultural giant of the two books, although its ideological and artistic value based on what is more important, "the feudal family misgovernment makes the people rebel" and the theme of criticism objectively with the revolutionary and political aspirations of feudalism. 另一方面,虽然陈独秀、胡适等人扛起“文学革命”大旗,提倡白话文,反对文言文,提倡新文学,反对旧文学,然而,除了《水浒传》和《红楼梦》等少数精品,几乎找不出其他堪称经典的白话文作品。 So, at least before 1949, there was no "four famous books". The Ming and Qing Dynasties "four great masterpieces" "four book" and later "four masterpiece" is not entirely consistent. The widespread popularity of this statement was a cultural phenomenon that emerged after the great prosperity of the publishing industry in 1980s. Of course, the value and position of its own masterpiece thought, literature and art, due to limitations of the times and the society, and the fate of writers of individual fate, even if is the excellent representative of traditional culture, but also inevitably mixes not adapt to the modern civilized society the dross, we should not can not ask the writer would take into account children reading and writing in education. They do not have this obligation. However, as educators and parents to guide the students in reading, but must consider the child’s age and physiological and psychological characteristics, and guiding values, to help children choose their critical reading works, these works are either classical or non classical. We have this responsibility. In addition to the expansion of the range, in addition to the "four famous books", in our literary classics, the work for children to read seems to be very limited. "Book of Songs", "Chu Ci" "historical records" too difficult, poetry is not easy to understand, "Strange Tales from Liaozhai" is full of ghost stories, listening to the child may have nightmares. As for the "Tang" "Shuo Yue Quan Zhuan" "Yi" is more like five is lower down. Yes, these literary classics are indeed classic, but they are all adult classics, not a child’s classic. People should of course read classics, but not all age groups should read the same classic. In addition, there are many other popular stories that are not necessarily suitable for premature contact with children. For example, "Tian Ji horse racing". Tian Ji was able to defeat him, because he secretly tampered with the rules of the game, not in accordance with the "Si on Si, Si on Si Si Si, under the requirement of" meet the competition requirements. In fact, this is cheating. This kind of story has been heard so much that it is difficult for the child to think that it is not important to be honest and observe the rules of the game as long as it is able to win the game. For example, in the spread of the "thirty-six" in the folk, many of the tricks are to describe how to deceive the opponent and win the final victory. "Thirty-six measures" is of military value in the era of cold weapons, but in modern society, if it is applied to daily life, it will seriously damage the mutual trust and social harmony between people. Some strategies, such as "collateral" looting "" on the housing ladder hide a dagger behind a smile "" fanjianji first, regardless of the specific content, only literally is with hair standing on end. If the children early exposure to these schemes and intrigues on their spiritual growth, that will be a picture of how terrible! Let more modern and Contemporary Classics be placed on the children’s bookshelves, which literary classics are suitable for children to read? I searched the Internet, most of which were four masterpieces, plus some world literature classics, such as Tom ·, Sawyer adventure, Andersen fairy tale, twenty thousand mile bottom, etc. It is not to say that children should not be allowed to read foreign literary classics, but that the translation works are separated from the original. Even if the level of the translator is high, it is difficult to let the children experience the charm of Chinese literary works, not to mention the profound and profound Chinese civilization. When I read "Virginia’s rabbit" to my daughter, I did not know exactly what "Virginia" meant to her. I’d rather talk to her about "the rabbit in Ningxia", and at least she knew it was where Grandma and grandpa lived. Where do our vernacular classics go? Why, in the literary classics recommended to children, is the vernacular literature written by contemporary and contemporary writers so few? This question may be answered by a scholar who specializes in the history of literature. I suspect that one reason may be that in the 5000 years’ cultural history of the Chinese nation, most of the literary works have been spread in classical Chinese and traditional poetry. Since the "new cultural movement", the history of true vernacular literary works has been only a hundred years. Short of time, the accumulated works are less, less classic works, the classic books that can be suitable for children to read will naturally be less. It’s like the Western Latin, the classical Chinese is far away from today’s real life. It is difficult for students to establish an effective connection between them and their real life. I have few chances to need people to do a high level of classical Chinese poems or. In fact, students can not master the writing and expression of vernacular by learning classical Chinese. Why do students "be afraid of writing in classical Chinese, two afraid to write a composition"? Fear stems from unfamiliarity and unfamiliarity with the lack of use. Of course, what I mean is not that students should not learn classical works in Chinese classical literature. On the contrary, students’ traditional Chinese culture is almost lost and must be strengthened. This is our context. I mean, in order to effectively improve students’ ability of reading and writing in real life, we need to pay more attention to the dissemination and reading guidance of vernacular literature. This is a more urgent task. Another reason may be that we rarely start from the education and reading psychology of the children to provide them with literary works suitable for their reading. This work is not a children’s literary works of outstanding children’s literature works is more rare — but said, starting from the age and characteristics of children, to provide them with those that are easy to arouse interest in reading, help to establish the correct values, improve the ability to appreciate literature works. These works should have at least the following three features: one is that the text should be as simple as possible. The simple meaning is that the strokes of the words are few, easy to remember, and the meaning is single. The most elementary reading books can be only a few words, then pick up the level, and gradually deepen the difficulty. Let children read in the reading process, cultivate the habit of reading in the read process; two is the story should be vivid, can arouse children’s reading desire and interest; the three is to positive values. The child’s spiritual growth needs to be guided and protected. To let the children as much as possible in the process of reading experience to love and goodness, integrity, honest, responsible, independent, brave and human glory and greatness, and so on; as little as possible to let the children to contact the ugly side of hypocrisy, cunning, sinister, deception in human nature, even if they reflect the cruel the reality of society. Life can teach children how to see the society, but it is difficult to make them better. The work is not easy, but it must be done, and it must be done by the professional. In my opinion, in order to effectively improve children’s reading and writing ability in Chinese, we need to strengthen the following three aspects of work. First, the university is engaged in contemporary literature research scholars should be more active action, instead of "New Culture Movement" giant sages of the eternal flame, guiding the society pay more attention to the children’s vernacular literature reading life and experience, and recommended the formation of a number of new vernacular literature classics, to assume greater social responsibility. As far as I know, the works of Mr. Cao Wenxuan, the Chinese Department of the Peking University, are very popular with the children. It’s a pity that such a high level writer is too little. More outstanding scholars should join Mr. Cao’s ranks, not only to recommend parents’ and children’s classic works in modern and contemporary literary works, but also to create a group of excellent works for children’s reading. Like Mr. Hu Shi of 100 years ago, he made "try collection" for the spread of vernacular literature. Second, scholars engaged in child psychology research, scholars engaged in modern literary studies and literary creators should work together to guide children’s reading works from the perspective of children’s psychological characteristics and cognitive abilities. Writers have the desire and ability to create, but they often lack the professional knowledge of children’s psychology. Their works are imaginative and artistic, but they do not necessarily conform to science. Children psychologists can provide effective professional support and help to "rectify", to provide children with higher quality, better educational results. Third, the publishing world should be aware of and undertake its cultural mission. It can not give up its moral responsibilities and educational responsibilities for economic interests, nor can it blindly catch up with the social hot spots and make mistakes. At present, under the banner of "Ancient Chinese Literature Search classic" banner gave the parents and children’s publications fallacies and crudely made an immense number of books, including shocking. Parents often lack awareness and ability to identify them. It is good to guide children to read, but if the direction of reading is wrong, it is better not to read it. I think, after several years of efforts, if the children can be placed on the shelves, more outstanding contemporary Chinese classic masterpiece, even more than the foreign classic masterpiece, then maybe we can be pleased to say: we have to make their own education responsibility, at least not live up to this time and live in this era the children. (the author is Qin Chunhua, Dean of the Institute for examination and research of Peking University) (China Youth Daily)

北大考试研究院院长:四大名著或不适合孩子阅读 [摘要]人人都应当阅读经典。但是在不同的年龄段,经典的含义肯定不一样。秦春华老师从家长和教育工作者的视角出发,提出这个问题:我们公认四大名著是经典,但是这个经典真的就适合孩子吗?  视觉中国供图  编者按:人人都应当阅读经典。但是在不同的年龄段,经典的含义肯定不一样。秦春华老师从家长和教育工作者的视角出发,提出这个问题:我们公认四大名著是经典,但是这个经典真的就适合孩子吗?  您认为四大名著适合孩子阅读吗?如果不适合,您认为是否可以从孩子的角度出发,去改编四大名著?您认为适合孩子阅读的经典是什么?  我们拉出一张“教育圆桌”——jiaoyuyuanzhuo@sina,等你发言。  暑假带女儿去旅行。一路上,女儿缠着我不停地讲故事。肚子里的存货早就被她掏空了,不得已开始讲三国。翻来拣去,竟然发现三国里能够适合小姑娘听的故事实在不多。绞尽脑汁勉强搜刮了一个“蒋干中计”,女儿倒是听得津津有味。等她睡着之后,妻子很认真地对我说:“以后你别再给孩子讲蒋干中计这类故事了。一来情节太复杂;再说这种骗来骗去的故事孩子听多了不好。”一语惊醒梦中人。仔细想想还真是这么回事。计谋计谋,说白了不就是骗人吗?对于6岁的孩子来说,是不应该过早接触这些内容。  妻子说完就完,我的职业病却发作了。自从痴迷于教育以来,任何事情我都会不由自主地联想到教育问题。倘若“蒋干中计”不适合孩子听,那么三国里的其他故事呢?再往深里想,书店里形形色色各种版本的“四大名著”琳琅满目,家长一摞一摞搬回家让孩子读,以为这样就可以让孩子受到中国传统文化的熏陶。可是,“四大名著”真的适合孩子阅读吗?  四大名著或并不适合孩子阅读  先来看《水浒传》和《三国演义》。这两部书在中国可谓家喻户晓,尤其是《三国演义》,连不识字的老太太都知道“桃园结义”“三顾茅庐”等几个故事。小时候,每天中午忙不迭地跑回家,第一件事就是打开收音机收听袁阔成播讲的评书《三国演义》。然而,“少不看水浒,老不读三国”,这句老话早就在民间流传。水浒里满是打家劫舍,落草为寇,占山为王。少年人血气方刚,心性未定,难免不会猴儿学样;三国中充斥了阴谋诡计,权术心机,尔虞我诈。“老读三国是为贼”,深谙世故的老年人读了之后愈加老谋深算,老奸巨猾。这样的价值观和精神内涵,对于成年人来说尚且要加以提防,更何况是不能明辨是非,易受影响的孩子!  按理说,《西游记》应该最适合孩子阅读。唐僧、孙悟空、猪八戒、沙和尚以及各类神仙妖魔形象栩栩如生,情节曲折动人,最容易勾起孩子阅读的兴趣。然而,这部书从根本上讲述的是佛法和人生,其隐含意义极为深远宏阔,远非孩子所能理解。书中随处可见“修持”“菩提”“元神”“禅心”等字样,蕴涵着浓重的佛教色彩,反而最不适合孩子阅读。  最后来看《红楼梦》。这部被誉为中国古典文学的巅峰之作,在世界文学史上也享有极高的地位。其思想之深刻,文字之精美,艺术价值之高,几乎无出其右者。上至王侯将相、学者大师,下至贩夫走卒、野夫村妇,无不为之痴迷。然而,从教育的角度看,这部书也不一定适合孩子阅读,尤其是正值青春期的少年。  首先,尽管一千个人对《红楼梦》有一千种解读,但“色”“空”“幻”“灭”的主题世所公认。对于孩子来说,这些观念要么不理解,要么理解了就会影响他们对未来生活的预期。教育应该点燃孩子心中的希望,鼓励他们追求未来更加美好的人生,而不是提醒他们现实有多么残酷。其次,按照曹雪芹的原意,书中所描述的社会和家族一步步从繁华走向崩溃,最终是“落了片白茫茫大地真干净”。如此悲情,悲到了极致,冷到了骨髓,固然深刻揭示了世情人生,却不一定有利于培养孩子乐观向上的人生观;最后,书中关于性描写的段落也不宜让孩子过早接触。我当然不是迂腐的卫道士,生理卫生课也早已在学校里开设。然而,科学地了解人体构造及性并无不妥,但恰恰是文学读物中那些欲说还休、似实又虚的性描写最易对少年男女产生诱惑,“淫书黄书”之所以害人不浅的关键就在于这一点。实际上,脱胎于《金瓶梅》的《石头记》在最初传抄之际的确是被列为“淫书”而遭禁的,而孔子早就因为“少之时,血气未定”而将“色”列为君子三戒之首。在孩子的性教育上,我们不能从一个极端走向另一个极端。开明不等于放任,引导更要注意方法和途径。今天,青少年对性的无知、不负责任以及与之伴生的校园强奸案泛滥,是世界性的重大难题,包括哈佛、斯坦福等在内的世界顶尖大学都对此十分头疼。虽然社会各界和众多学者做了大量研究和探讨,却至今缺乏有效的应对之策。  上面分析的是内容,单就文字而言,我认为也不一定适合孩子——特别是小孩子——阅读。四大名著半文半白,《三国演义》更近乎是完全的文言文,和现在的白话文其实还有相当的距离,小孩子读起来困难很大。即使勉强读下来也是囫囵吞枣,生吞活剥地看完故事了事。至于小说结构布局之宏大精巧,人物性格之生动鲜明,语言运用之神妙隽永,这些美学上的价值更非低龄儿童所能理解和领悟。  适合孩子阅读的文学经典也很有限  实际上,所谓“四大名著”的说法流传时间并不长。《水浒传》和《红楼梦》之所以影响巨大,一方面和20世纪初的“新文化运动”有着直接关系。胡适等新文化巨擘推崇这两部书,固然基于其本身的思想和艺术价值,更重要的是,“官逼民反”和对封建大家族的批判主题客观上契合了当时革命和反封建的政治诉求。另一方面,虽然陈独秀、胡适等人扛起“文学革命”大旗,提倡白话文,反对文言文,提倡新文学,反对旧文学,然而,除了《水浒传》和《红楼梦》等少数精品,几乎找不出其他堪称经典的白话文作品。因此,至少在1949年以前,并没有所谓“四大名著”之说。明清之际的“四大奇书”“四大才子书”和后来的“四大名著”并不完全吻合。这一说法的大规模流行是20世纪80年代出版业大繁荣之后才出现的文化现象。当然,名著自有其思想、文学和艺术上的价值与地位,由于时代和社会的局限,以及作家个人命运的际遇,即便是传统文化中的优秀代表,也不可避免地杂糅了不适应现代文明社会的糟粕,我们不应该也不可能苛求作家在写作时会顾及到孩子的阅读和教育。他们并没有这个义务。但是,作为教育者和家长,在指导学生阅读时,却不能不考虑孩子的年龄和生理心理特征,以及价值观的引导,批判性地帮助孩子选择适合他们阅读的作品,无论这些作品是经典还是非经典。我们有这个责任。  再扩大一点儿范围,除了“四大名著”,在我们的文学经典中,适合孩子阅读的作品似乎也非常有限。《诗经》《楚辞》《史记》太过艰深,唐诗宋词也不好懂,《聊斋志异》里全是鬼故事,孩子听了可能会做噩梦。至于《说唐》《说岳全传》《七侠五义》之类则更是等而下之了。没错,这些文学经典的确是经典,只不过它们都是成年人的经典,并不是孩子的经典。人当然应该阅读经典,但不是所有年龄阶段的人都应该阅读同样的经典。  此外,还有其他一些流传甚广的故事也不一定适合让孩子过早接触。比如“田忌赛马”。田忌之所以能够战胜齐威王,是因为他暗中篡改了比赛规则,没有按照“上驷对上驷,中驷对中驷,下驷对下驷”的要求提供符合比赛要求的赛马。实际上这就是作弊。这类故事听多了,孩子难免不会认为,只要能够取得比赛胜利,是否诚实和遵守比赛规则是不重要的。再比如,在民间广为流传的“三十六计”,不少计谋是描述如何骗过对手,赢得最终胜利。“三十六计”在冷兵器时代固然具有军事上的价值,但在现代社会,如果将其运用于日常生活,则会严重损害人与人之间的相互信任和社会和谐。有些计策,如“借刀杀人”“趁火打劫”“笑里藏刀”“上屋抽梯”“反间计”等,先不论其具体内容如何,仅从字面上看就令人毛骨悚然。倘若孩子过早接触这些阴谋诡计,对他们的心灵成长而言,将是多么可怕的一幅图景!  让更多的现当代中文经典名著摆在孩子的书架上  那么,到底哪些文学经典适合孩子阅读呢?我上网搜索了一下,看到的结果大多数是四大名著再加上一些世界文学经典,例如《汤姆·索亚历险记》《安徒生童话》《海底两万里》等等。不是说不应该让孩子去读国外文学经典,而是翻译作品总归和原作隔了一层。即使译者的水平再高,也很难让孩子从中体会汉语文学作品的魅力,更不用说中华文明的博大精深了。当我给女儿读“弗吉尼亚的兔子”时,我完全不知道“弗吉尼亚”对她而言意味着什么。我倒宁愿给她讲讲“宁夏的兔子”,起码她知道那是爷爷奶奶住的地方。我们的白话文经典到哪里去了?为什么在推荐给孩子阅读的文学经典中,纯粹由现当代作家所写的白话文学作品那么少呢?  这个问题可能要由专门治文学史的学者来回答。我猜想,一个原因也许是,在中华民族五千年的文化史中,绝大部分文学作品是以文言文和传统诗词歌赋的形式流传至今的。自“新文化运动”以来,真正的白话文学作品的历史尚不过百年。时间短则积累的作品就少,经典名著就更少,能够适合孩子阅读的经典名著自然就会少之又少。就好比西方的拉丁文,文言文距离今天的现实生活已经十分遥远。学生很难在它们和现实生活之间建立起有效的联系。现在很少有机会需要人们去做一篇高水平的文言文或律诗。实际上,学生并不能通过学习文言文而掌握白话文的写作与表达。为什么学生“一怕文言文,二怕写作文”?恐惧源于不熟悉,不熟悉源于缺乏运用。当然,我的意思绝不是说学生不应该学习中国古典文学中的经典作品,恰恰相反,现在学生的中国传统文化功底几乎丧失殆尽,必须得到加强。这是我们的文脉。我的意思是说,为了有效提高学生在现实生活中的阅读与写作能力,我们需要更加关注白话文学经典的传播和阅读引导。这是更为紧迫的任务。  另一个原因可能是,我们很少从孩子的教育和阅读心理出发,为他们提供适合其阅读的文学作品。这样的作品倒不一定是儿童文学作品——当然优秀的儿童文学作品就更为罕见——而是说,要从孩子的年龄和特点出发,向他们提供那些容易引起阅读兴趣,有助于建立正确的价值观,提高文学鉴赏能力的作品。这些作品至少要具备以下三个特征:一是文字要尽可能地简单。简单的含义是字的笔画少,容易记,意义单一。最初级的读本可以只有几个字,以后拾级而上,逐步加深难度。让孩子在阅读的过程中认字,在认字的过程中培养起阅读的习惯;二是故事情节要生动曲折,能够勾起孩子阅读的欲望和兴趣;三是价值观要积极正向。孩子的心灵成长需要得到引导和保护。要尽可能多让孩子在阅读的过程中体会到爱与良善、正直、诚实、负责任、独立、勇敢以及人性的光辉与伟大,等等;尽可能少让孩子去接触虚伪、阴险、狡诈、欺骗等人性中丑恶的一面,哪怕它们真实反映了社会的残酷现实。生活自会教会孩子如何看清社会,却很难再有机会让他们重拾美好。  这些工作并不容易,但必须要做,而且要由专业人士有意识地去做。我认为,为了有效提高孩子的中文阅读和写作能力,重点需要加强以下三方面的工作。  第一,大学里从事现当代文学研究的学者们应该更积极地行动起来,接续“新文化运动”先贤巨擘的薪火,引导社会更加关注孩子的白话文学的阅读生活和体验,推荐并形成一批新的白话文学经典,从而承担起更大的社会责任。据我所知,北大中文系曹文轩先生的作品就深受孩子们的喜爱。可惜这样有情怀高水平的作家实在是太少了。更多的优秀学者应该加入曹先生的行列,不仅要向家长和孩子推荐现当代文学作品中的经典名作,甚至有必要亲力亲为,创作一批适合孩子阅读的优秀作品。就像100年前的胡适先生一样,为传播白话文学而作《尝试集》。  第二,从事儿童心理学研究的学者、从事现代文学研究的学者以及文学创作者应该携手合作,从儿童的心理特征和认知能力出发,有针对性地为社会推介适合孩子阅读的文学作品。作家具有创作的欲望和能力,但往往缺乏儿童心理学的专业知识。他们的作品富于想象力和艺术性,但未必符合科学。儿童心理学家可以提供有效的专业支持和帮助进行“纠偏”,为孩子提供质量更高,教育效果更好的作品。  第三,出版界应该清醒地认识到并承担起自己的文化使命,不能为了经济利益而放弃了自己的道德责任和教育责任,更不能盲目迎合社会热点而错误地推波助澜。当前,打着“国学经典”旗号塞给家长和孩子的出版物汗牛充栋,其中的谬误和粗制滥造触目惊心。家长往往对此缺乏辨识的意识和能力。引导孩子读书是好事,但如果读书的方向错了,还不如不读。  我想,经过若干年的努力,如果在孩子们的书架上,能够摆放更多优秀的现当代中文经典名著,甚至比国外经典名著还要多,那时候也许我们可以欣慰地说:我们尽到了自己的教育责任,至少没有辜负这个时代和生活在这个时代的孩子。  (作者为北京大学考试研究院院长秦春华)(中国青年报)相关的主题文章: